M + x: some final project essay thinking

William James, drawn by his own hand

The American philosopher William James, in an essay titled “The Sentiment of Rationality,” argues that philosophical thinking or conceptions about the world (“M”) can’t be separated from the individual doing the thinking (“x”). The individual’s perception of the world (the topics and issues the person is thinking and writing about) inform the conceptions–and those conceptions, once thought and written, become part of a new perception. He referred to this relation as “M + x.”

It seems to me that this is very much the work of essaying. And James, influenced by Emerson, not only wrote essays as the primary form for his work, but pursued thinking in his essays. So, your essay project is about M–some sort of topic or location or issue or idea in the world. But M and its issues and information are given, even if not well known. What you need to do as an essayist is focus on your “x”: what your perception of M is, questions and complications that you bring to it.  Here are some reminders and suggestions for ways to approach and clarify and explore what x is for you, and how x relates to M. Think of these as composting tools, strategies for invention: developing and shaping and organizing the matter of your essay.

  1. Gutkind’s 5Rs of Creative Nonfiction
    1. Real-life Immersion
    2. Reflection
    3. Research
    4. Reading
    5. wRiting/craft
  2. Particle/Wave/Field Heuristic
    1. Particle: First, take your topic X and view it as a static, unchanging entity (particle): note its distinguishing features, characteristics; consider how this entity differs from other similar things. Think of this as specific ideas and statements made; specific quotations; deliberate reading of the material of the matter.
    2. Wave: Second, view the same topic as a dynamic changing process (wave): note how it acts and changes through time, grows, develops, decays. Do we see the same vision in the end as at the beginning? What are some changes you observe? Think of this as places where you find echoes and contradictions and traces of the ideas or earlier statements.
    3. Field: Third, view the topic as a Field, as related to things around it and part of a system, network or ecological environment. What depends on X? What does X depend on? What would happen if X doesn’t exist? Who loves (hates) X? What communities (categories) does X belong to?  Who would love this idea? Who would hate it? What is X’s function in a larger system.
  3. Other structures we have already explored:
    1. Ethos/Pathos/Logos
    2. Philosophy/Rhetoric/Poetics
    3. Course keywords
  4. Structural ideas (from Bascom’s “Picturing the Personal Essay”)”
    1. circling/spiraling around a subject
    2. framing a focus around discrete/segmented scenes (links to Gutkind); layering of images (lyric essay)
    3. descent into the well of meaning (place for research)
    4. coming full circle
  5. Reading/Writing Mentors: what can I learn from Dillard or D’Agata, borrow, in terms of philosophy, rhetoric, poetics for my essay? If I want to write my essay something like this writer, what does that essay do or look like?
  6. Publication venues: who publishes the sort of essay I am contemplating? what do essays in that publication do or look like? Here is a listing of journals that publish essays–see also the links to the right on this blog.
    1. Homes for the Essay: Journals


The Essay: Theater of the Brain


Noun: A short piece of writing on a particular subject.

Verb: Attempt or try: “essay a smile”.

Synonyms: noun.  attempt – try – trial – test – experiment – assay;

verb.  try – attempt – assay – test – sample – endeavor

I have as motto for this course, which studies the creative reading and critical writing of the nonfiction genre of the essay, David Shields’s succinct definition: “Essay: theater of the brain.” That’s a line from his book Reality Hunger, a contemporary version of a longstanding essayists tool, the commonplace notebook or journal. On that same page, Shields cites another definition of the essay from John D’Agata (another writer we will be reading):

“Essay” is a verb, not just a noun; “essaying” is a process.

D’Agata, as you will discover in the course, could have cited Emerson or Montaigne, or Didion and Dillard, as well as the dictionary. This understanding of the process of the essay–dramatic, dynamic, verb as well as noun–indicates what I assume for you might be very new and unfamiliar territory.  These are connotations not usually associated with the word: the essay as dynamic and dramatic form for thinking through and exploring and performing ideas and arguments in writing. It also indicates that some of the work we have in front of us, as both critics and creators of the form (what I mean by “creative reading,” borrowed from Emerson), will be to rethink our assumptions about what this “essay” is and does, assumptions largely shaped by past experience in schools. I assume that all of us have encountered, if not (alas) directly experienced the way essays are presented as punishment in the premise for the film The Breakfast Club [see clip]. The essay not as tool for the student’s (or the writer’s) thinking; rather, the essay as detention, as something in the way, something to be dreaded.

At some level, this will mean rethinking and further exploring, complicating–like any good essay will–our understanding of what it means to think. William James, the influential American psychologist and philosopher (a careful reader of Emerson and himself an essayist), describes consciousness and thinking in his Principles of Psychology not only as a “stream” but in these dramatic terms: “the mind is at every stage a theatre of simultaneous possibilities” (Principles 1: 277).

In my own effort, my own assay (attempt, trial, experiment) to grasp this fluid and dynamic form of nonfiction writing first hand, without being able or wanting to classify it fully, turn it forever into a noun, when the essay as verb is so much more engaging…toward this end without an end, I have organized our exploration around the following rubric: philosophy, rhetoric, poetics. The critic and rhetorician Kenneth Burke categorizes thinking into one of these three categories, modeled upon the classical curriculum (logic, rhetoric, grammar). He thinks of all thinking and language (and the writing and expression that follows from both, or with both) as symbolic action, where

Philosophy suggests symbolic action used for discussion of ideas, first principles;

Rhetoric suggests symbolic action used for persuasion and identification with an audience–moving, informing or entertaining another;

Poetics suggests symbolic action in an for itself, with an emphasis on form.

  • “Rhetoric, Poetics, and Philosophy.”  Rhetoric, Philosophy and Literature: an Exploration.  Ed. Don M. Burks.  West Lafayette: Purdue UP, 1978.  15-33.

Burke himself, like essayists before and after him, emphasizes that the symbolic nature of such thinking and writing is dramatic and dynamic. So, these are not separate categories; an essay that is philosophical will also entail elements of the rhetorical and poetic. However, as a way to get a better grasp as writers and critical readers of the genre of the essay, we will give more particular attention to each of these categories as we work our way through the readings of the course, moving from the philosophy of the essay, to the rhetoric, to the poetics of the essay. In the final project, you will take up the challenge of joining Burke and Emerson and Montaigne and Didion and Dillard and many others, writing and publishing an essay that effectively expresses all three in the symbolic action of your language and form and thinking.

You will walk upon the stage of this theater of the brain and see where the essay’s possibilities lead you.

To get started, read “The Essay, an Exercise in Doubt,” an essay on the essay by Phillip Lopate. It will get us started in rethinking some conventional views of the essay you have learned from school.

For a better sense of the essays–and the nonfiction–that is all around us (just probably didn’t think you were reading an essay), browse this listing of great essays, articles, and other works of nonfiction.